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New Nucleic Acid Analogs: A Potential “Medicine for Genes”

... there! Most likely, this phrase would be just gibberish for a broad audience (much to the regret of molecular biologists). Moreover, I recently spoke on occasion with an aspiring science journalist, who answered to the question whether he knew how DNA worked, which was the topic of his , sort of accusingly if not proudly, “Of course, no! But I am a journalist, not a biologist!” However, to understand and appreciate the discovery of Novosibirsk researchers, we need to have elementary knowledge ...

Modified: 04.09.2015
DNA , phosphoryl guanidine , nucleic acids , oligonucleotides
Path: Главная / News
Phosphoryl Guanidines: New Chemical Analogues of Nucleic Acids

... new class of nucleic acid analogues, namely, phosphoryl guanidines (Kupryushkin, Pyshnyi, and Stetsenko, 2014). When an unloaded rifle fires a shot What is similar and what is different between common nucleic acids and phosphoryl guanidines? A natural DNA or RNA molecule contains negatively charged phosphate groups (>PO2–), which connect adjacent nucleotides into a polynucleotide chain. As for the DNA analogues that have been obtained for the first time at the ICBFM SB RAS, those substitute uncharged ...

Modified: 30.08.2015
DNA , oligonucleotide analogs , phosphoryl guanidine
Path: Главная / Articles
Nucleic Do-It-Yourself

... the interactions of such structures,with the ultimate goal of reproducing the process of self-assembly in an artificially created system. This would open the way to the in vitro synthesis of various biological structures, from single enzymes such as DNA ligase to ribosomes and virus-like particles, and even to the design of microscopic biological objects with the desired properties that do not exist in nature One nanometer (i.e., one millionth of a millimeter) is the size of a simple molecule, while ...

Modified: 30.12.2008
nanotechnology , DNA , RNA , nucleic acids , oligonucleotides , nanomotors , aptamers , nanoprobes , transfection , nucleic acid transport , addressed drug delivery
Path: Главная / Articles
Targeting at RNA

The necessary information for the development and organism survival is encoded in its genome. This information is stored in the form of genomic DNA, which contains the sequences encoding for the structure of all proteins of the organism as well as the regulatory elements determining the place, timing and quantity of the proteins to be synthesized. The biologists refer to the sophisticated mechanisms ...

Modified: 30.04.2008
RNA , DNA
Path: Главная / Articles
Biochips: Diagnosis Is a Matter of Technique!

What are biochips? Today, this buzzword means the miniature devices for determining specific interactions between biological macromolecules. Nucleic or ribonucleic acids (including genomic DNA fragments), proteins, and other molecules can serve as probes in such chips. Over a short time period, biological microchips have formed a separate field of analysis with manifold applications, from merely practical uses in medicine, pharmacology,...

Modified: 25.10.2007
biochips , microchips , DNA , RNA , nucleic acids , genes , gene expression , diagnosis
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Saved by the Cell: How Cells Repair DNA

All information kept and handed down by the living cells is carried by the DNA molecules — encoded genetic “texts”. A cell thoroughly looks after its treasures: DNA is the only molecule that the cell repairs when it is damaged, while all other molecules are synthesized anew Despite the key role that the DNA strand plays ...

Modified: 25.06.2007
DNA , proteins , repair , DNA damage , cell , repair enzymes , enzymes , nucleic acid
Path: Главная / Articles
Jumping GENES

... been constructed for many unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, the amount of genetic material located between the genes is by an order of magnitude larger as compared with the genetic material in the genes proper. The role this ballast DNA fraction plays is yet to be finally clarified; however, mobile elements are most frequently detectable in this particular DNA fraction. Moreover, not only do they migrate themselves, but can also grab the neighboring DNA fragments. What is the origin ...

Modified: 25.02.2007
mobile elements , Drosophila melanogaster , genome , genes , DNA
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The Enigma of "Rusty" DNA

DNA, the store of genetic information, is vulnerable to a host of environmental factors, including sunlight, ionizing radiation and even the products of cell metabolism. It is hard to imagine what life would be if it were not for dedicated proteins that ...

Modified: 30.12.2006
DNA , oxidation , mutation , transversion , repair , enzymes
Path: Главная / Articles
Life Began with RNA

Why does a paper about RNA, not other, more well-known organic molecules such as DNA or proteins appear in the cycle of articles on the origin of life? Perhaps our readers have heard about RNA, but what? Most likely, nothing noteworthy for the simple reason that so far only experts in biology know that RNA consists of ‘magic’molecules ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
nucleic acid , RNA , DNA , molecular biology , genetic information , life , evolution , amino acids , enzymes , biosynthesis , protein
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Transgenic Relatives

... evolutionary constructions using not only the formal resemblance between species but also the closeness of their genomes , i.e. the set of genes and genetic elements specifying all characters of an organism. Differences in the structure of genes (DNA segments encoding protein molecules and RNA) provide an insight into the degree of genetic relationship between different kinds of organisms. The emergence of new properties is actually not related to the accumulation of gradual mutation – this ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
genome , DNA , gene transfer , genetic information , human , bacteria , evolution
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Nature, the First Genetic Engineer

Alien DNA… This combination of words plunges an average person into gloom. The most inoffensive association that arises in a mentality treated by the media would be the sweet Adams family with the Fly Man looming over them. People start feverish examining ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
transgenic organisms , GMO , DNA , gene transfer
Path: Главная / Articles
Is it Easy to Be the Creator?

... at the end of the Second Millennium was felt far and wide across science. As far as biology is concerned, the rise was due to the development of two new fields: genetics and its ‘scion’, namely molecular genetics, which allowed manipulation with DNA molecules as the carriers of genetic information beyond the living cell. Genetic engineers and biotechnologists came to the scene. Armed with techniques for genetic and cell/tissue culturing, they learned to develop ‘new’ organisms and thus undertook ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
DNA , genome , selection , transgenic plants , gene transfer , GMO
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"Russian Trail" in the Discovery of DNA Structure

... Prof. Crew, but sometimes circumstances get in the way of even the best intentions. Reproduced from Nikolay Ivanovich Vavilov and the Pages from the History of Soviet Genetics, compiled by I. Zakharov. In the mid-20th century the spatial structure of DNA, the basic carrier of hereditary information, was deciphered. This success initiated a series of discoveries and generated new scientific disciplines. Molecular biology and genetic engineering were born. Mendel’s laws were formulated almost 140 ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
DNA , genetics , heredity , Nobel Prize in biology and medicine
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Nucleotide Chronicles of Troubled Time

... unselfish interest in natural phenomena and their mechanisms. They wish to get at the heart of the matter and do not care if the research object is a huge whale or an unremarkable Drosophila, since the real work begins with a transparent droplet of DNA solution… While speaking about Lake Baikal, people often use superlative forms of adjectives. The lake is the oldest and the deepest. As to the number of animal species, they are literally countless because no one knows the exact number. If ...

Modified: 30.05.2004
Lake Baikal , speciation , genes , genome , evolution , DNA , biodiversity
Path: Главная / Articles

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