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Nucleic Do-It-Yourself

... complexes, the multipart assemblies of individual molecules. Their size varies from several nanometers to tens or hundreds of nanometers. The role of strips, plates and girders in a bionanoconstruction kit is played by molecules of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. These biopolymers have an amazing ability to self-assemble into distinctive three-dimensional shapes—double-stranded structures held together by complementary interactions. As a result, nucleic acids can be used not only as storage of genetic information ...

Modified: 30.12.2008
nanotechnology , DNA , RNA , nucleic acids , oligonucleotides , nanomotors , aptamers , nanoprobes , transfection , nucleic acid transport , addressed drug delivery
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Targeting at RNA

... biotherapy, where the modified viruses serve as perfect vehicles for addressed delivery of therapeutic molecules. The delivery problem is a central issue for possible therapeutic applications of antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, and interfering RNAs discussed in this volume (see the publications of E. Chernolovskaya and V. Silnikov). For a number of disorders—from cardiovascular to oncological—it is the alteration of gene expression that causes the disease. mRNA is the carrier of genetic ...

Modified: 30.04.2008
RNA , DNA
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RNAI and Antisense Technology: Rivals or Partners?

On their first encounter with RNA interference technology, then a newcomer in the toolbox of efficient gene knockout methods, many research and medical professionals believed it to become a complete alternative to the traditional antisense approach. The vivid discussion stimulated ...

Modified: 30.04.2008
RNA , RNA intereference
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Biochips: Diagnosis Is a Matter of Technique!

... network of molecular interactions controls the processes of intracellular metabolism, cell division, and differentiation; this network determines the level of expression (functioning) of various genes. The concentration of the corresponding messenger RNA (mRNA), which is synthesized on the template of DNA, the carrier of hereditary information, reflects the expression level. The dynamics of changes in the concentration of a certain mRNA indicate that the corresponding gene is switched on or off, while ...

Modified: 25.10.2007
biochips , microchips , DNA , RNA , nucleic acids , genes , gene expression , diagnosis
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The Remedy for Genes

... functions to be studied directly and, eventually, to be controlled. So, how is it possible to change the genetic program of interest? All genes have similar chemical composition and structure: the difference between them consists only in the alternation order of four monomer blocks — the nucleotides A, T, G, and C. To act on a particular gene, a molecule of the substance should recognize this particular nucleotide sequence by some way or other, which is, at first glance, an unsolvable problem....

Modified: 25.04.2007
nucleic acids , oligonucleotides , RNA , chemical modification , genes
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The Planet's Long Youth

... (Lein, 2004). Which microscopic organisms launched those geochemical processes over 3.5 billion years ago? Before we set off in a tour to the world of bacteria, it is pertinent to go back to the foundation of life on the Earth. The Story Began with RNA The beginning, 3.8 Byr ago or earlier, was marked by the onset of independent RNA or ribonucleic acid (Gilbert, 1986; Joyce, 2002; Spirin, 2002). Experiments proved that its short polymeric macromolecules (oligonucleotides) can develop immediately ...

Modified: 30.05.2005
Zavarzin , bacteria , RNA , Earth , biomass , eukaryotes , evolution , evolution of life , genes
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Life Began with RNA

Why does a paper about RNA, not other, more well-known organic molecules such as DNA or proteins appear in the cycle of articles on the origin of life? Perhaps our readers have heard about RNA, but what? Most likely, nothing noteworthy for the simple reason that so far only ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
nucleic acid , RNA , DNA , molecular biology , genetic information , life , evolution , amino acids , enzymes , biosynthesis , protein
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