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Bacteriophages: 100 years in the service of mankind

... toxic for bacteria, which disrupt metabolism – ​such phages are more deadly for bacteria. Bacteria have several mechanisms protecting them from antibiotics and bacteriophages; one such mechanism is the destruction of virus genomes by restriction enzymes targeting specific nucleotide sequences. The therapeutic potency of phages can be improved through “reformatting” their gene sequence at the expense of gene code degeneration in such a way as to minimize the number of nucleotide sequences ...

Modified: 15.03.2017
bacteriophage , phage therapy , enzymes , phage display , nano materials , bacteriophages
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Saved by the Cell: How Cells Repair DNA

... like a “baton”. Certainly, it is not DNA itself that moves. It is more like every protein comes around and begins working just as the previous participant of the process completes its task. In the very beginning of the conveyor there are several enzymes, DNA glycosylases, which find the damaged base and excise it*. Some of them find and excise several different types of damaged bases, that is, can “bite off” from the DNA strand differently damaged “beads” without cutting the strand itself....

Modified: 25.06.2007
DNA , proteins , repair , DNA damage , cell , repair enzymes , enzymes , nucleic acid
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The Enigma of "Rusty" DNA

... socket. That’s why, in DNA, A always stands opposite T, and G, opposite C. An attempt to put, say, A opposite C, is not quite unlike an attempt to force a European round-pin plug into an American flat-hole socket. The cell also possesses dedicated enzymes, DNA polymerases , which can “read” one strand of DNA and assemble a complementary strand on this template. Obviously, the sequence of the template strand unambiguously determines the sequence of the complementary strand, providing the basis ...

Modified: 30.12.2006
DNA , oxidation , mutation , transversion , repair , enzymes
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The Mysterious Absymes

... for a long time that antibodies can neutralize antigens only via a stable binding followed by their discharge from the body. However, it appears that this is not the only possible route. Thus, it is high time for the digression on other proteins — enzymes . A New Science: Abzymology Everybody has known from the school years that enzymes are proteins catalyzing a diversity of chemical reactions. The molecule of an enzyme binds the molecule of a substance ( substrate ) to transform it into another ...

Modified: 30.12.2006
antibodies , abzymes , blood , lymphocytes , enzymes , immune system
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Life Began with RNA

... poured out one after another, and they made us look at RNA from a different standpoint. A JACK-OF-ALL-’MOLECULES’ The most amazing thing was the discovery of RNA’s catalytic ability. It was previously generally believed that only proteins and enzymes are capable of catalyzing reactions. For example, scientists for a long time were unable to isolate the enzymes involved in cleaving and ligating certain RNA. It appeared after long studies that RNA perfectly coped with the task on its own. The ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
nucleic acid , RNA , DNA , molecular biology , genetic information , life , evolution , amino acids , enzymes , biosynthesis , protein
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