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Selection of the Best Friend

The experiment on fox domestication, conceived by the outstanding Russian evolutionary geneticist Dmitry Konstantinovich Belyaev and carried out in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok has been recognized as one of the major scientific experiments of the twentieth century. In evolutionary biology the experiment is unprecedented – with ...

Modified: 15.05.2018
Lyudmila Trut , Dmitri Belyaev , evolution , natural selection , destabilizing selection , domestication , fox , dog
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Why Do We Need to Read the Synedra acus Genome

... mechanisms underlying the formation of silica shells will be a real breakthrough in nanotechnologies when the necessary research is completed. Currently, fewer than ten laboratories worldwide are involved in diatom genomics. Genome as a Key to the Evolution of Diatoms Genome sequencing helps to solve several important problems that cannot be solved by other research approaches, such as microscopy or biochemical analysis. After diatoms die, their empty firm silicon shells are perfectly preserved ...

Modified: 02.09.2016
genomics , phylogenomics , evolution , Synedra
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Live Silicon of Lake Baikal

Silicon is one of the most abundant chemical elements in the Earth’s crust; however, it is not a structure-forming element of living organisms, its high concentrations being toxic for living cells. Nonetheless, many organisms such as sponges, radiolarians, and higher plants, especially cereals, rather actively utilize silicon in their bodies’ scaffolds. Note that silicon plays the most important role in the life of chrysophytes and diatoms, accounting for over 50 % of their biomass Diatoms are...

Modified: 01.09.2016
Baikal , diatoms , morphogenesis , colchicine , paclitaxel , biosilica , microstructures , genomics , phylogenomics , evolution
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On the Time Axis

... exact rather than descriptive field of science. Objective information obtained within the approach helps interpret the already known archaeological phenomena and get truly sensational results. This is proved by the latest discoveries on the origin and evolution of man. Thus, choosing Akademgorodok as a venue for the symposium appears to be symbolic because, according to Mikhail Fedoruk, Rector of Novosibirsk State University, multidisciplinary research is Akademgorodok's principal advantage: all research ...

Modified: 04.09.2015
archaeology , symposium , multidisciplinary approach , evolution , radiocarbon dating , paleogenetics
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Cats and Genes: 30 Years Later

... genetic content of the cat chromosomes and chromosomes of other mammals gave very interesting and quite unexpected results. In particular, cats, as well as humans, have rather insignificantly rearranged its chromosomes over the 80-90 million years of evolution from a common ancestor. The beginning of this story dates back to my student time at Novosibirsk State University. Once our English teacher asked us to retell a scientific paper that would be interesting to the other students in the group....

Modified: 30.12.2009
evolution , chromosomes , meiosis , recombination , genetics
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Journey to the Invisible World

... by God’s will. These assumptions are well-grounded; investigations and findings of the last few years have provided documentary evidence that there are structures similar to biological in meteorites. However, as we can perceive signs of change and evolution even during our short lifetime, we cannot resist the temptation to try to reconstruct the sequence of events that occurred nearly 4 billion years ago. Are there any organisms on Earth that have preserved the features of their forefathers? There ...

Modified: 25.08.2007
microorganisms , geysers , hot springs , bacteria , genome , evolution , origin of life
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An Evolutionary Experiment

The name of academician D. K. Belyaev is connected, first and foremost, with the research into the main biological process, evolution. The scientist opened a completely new, previously unknown to geneticists, chapter of the theory of morphogenetic processes related to the interaction between the main factors of evolution — variation and selection — and used the ...

Modified: 25.04.2007
domestication , fox , Belyaev , evolution , evolution of man , bonobos , chimpanzees
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Academician Dobretsov: Origin and Evolution of Life

... before. In all documents and forms I used to write: “from a family of employees”. But indeed my family belonged to a new intellectual elite formed during pre-Soviet, Stolypin and Soviet times. My grandfather on my mother’s side was a true pre-Revolution intellectual, though he arrived in Petersburg almost “in bast shoes”. He studied at the Mining Institute, where only privileged were admitted, even though he was a Lutheran. But the results of his admission examination in mathematics were ...

Modified: 30.03.2006
Academician Nikolay Dobretsov , biography , Nikolay Kell , Mining Institute , geology , evolution , Novosibirsk Science Center
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The Planet's Long Youth

“Beginning” often means something from the old, distant, and forgotten past, like the childhood. This meaning is however poorly applicable to the evolution. The “childhood” of the biosphere ended not very long ago on the evolution time scale, presumably with the advent of metazoan organisms; the “eyewitnesses” and “participators” of that event are still living, safe and sound. For some ...

Modified: 30.05.2005
Zavarzin , bacteria , RNA , Earth , biomass , eukaryotes , evolution , evolution of life , genes
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Life Began with RNA

... of duplicating (or, more simply speaking, of reproducing). It is also necessary that certain changes in hereditary information emerge during such copying, thereby bringing into being new variants of systems — that is, this implies the existence of evolution . Moreover, biologists will definitely note that such systems must be isolated spatially. Otherwise, the evolved, more progressive systems will be unable to make use of their advantages, since their more efficient catalysts and other products ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
nucleic acid , RNA , DNA , molecular biology , genetic information , life , evolution , amino acids , enzymes , biosynthesis , protein
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Searches for a Periodic System... in Evolution

... detailed. Researchers, however, have continued efforts to systematize and formalize our knowledge of biological processes and mechanisms in searches for a peculiar periodic system in biology. This is true to an even greater extent for research into the evolution of biological systems, recalling Dobzhansky’s idea that any problem in biology makes no sense if it is not relevant to the theory of evolution. STARTING FROM THE BEGINNING Since the times of Charles Darwin, no one has constructed a good ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
evolution , population genetics , nucleic acid
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Transgenic Relatives

How do you see the process of biological evolution? The picture that appears before your mind’s eye looks like a sort of a branching genealogical tree. According to the classical postulates of Darwinism, at the base of the evolutionary trunk there are rather simple ancestors, from which more ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
genome , DNA , gene transfer , genetic information , human , bacteria , evolution
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Microbes: Keeping it Going

... the dominating ideology Darwinism with molecular genetics as its weapon of choice; the latter into geobiospheric attitudes expected to answer the question as to whether a sustainable development is at all possible Looking rather like a pyramid, evolution is traditionally portrayed as a tree, which is referred to accordingly — an evolutionary tree. THE SUM IS MORE THAN ITS PARTS Before we go about using the concept of life, let us see first that we have the right idea about the concept of a ...

Modified: 30.05.2004
organisms , evolution , microorganisms , bacteria , life
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In Praise of Catastrophes

... continents, the stone pages of the Earth’s history, store a unique natural record of its remote and near past. This archive keeps signature of the billion years-long way of the Earth’s organic world from primeval microbial communities to humans, the evolution acme. The life evolution was marked by many geologic cataclysms which caused dramatic changes to environment. The geologic shocks suffered by ecosystems were actually large-scale natural experiments unfeasible for a laboratory. The fragmentary ...

Modified: 30.05.2004
Earth , organisms , life , ecosystem , evolution , Ordovician , biosphere
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Nucleotide Chronicles of Troubled Time

... events, determine who is who and who originated from whom. Revealing the mechanisms, which resulted in such a striking diversity in the relatively closed ecosystem, is important not only for getting an insight into the lake itself, but also for the evolutionary theory in general. Unfortunately, when we deal with a flock of tens to hundreds closely related species, it is extremely difficult to establish their evolutionary relations on the basis of morphological criteria (antennas, aciculae, etc.) ...

Modified: 30.05.2004
Lake Baikal , speciation , genes , genome , evolution , DNA , biodiversity
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