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Life Began with RNA

... the beginning’, let us stock up with necessary knowledge about the structure of nucleic acids — DNA (deoxyribonucleic) and RNA (ribonucleic). In its chemical structure, RNA is a twin, although not an identical twin, of DNA, the major repository of genetic information in a living cell. Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules composed of separate elements, nucleotides . Molecules of a five-carbon sugar linked by phosphates form the backbone of these macromolecules. One nitrogen base is attached ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
nucleic acid , RNA , DNA , molecular biology , genetic information , life , evolution , amino acids , enzymes , biosynthesis , protein
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Transgenic Relatives

... almost without changes during the evolution from simple to more complex organisms. From orthologs paralogous genes have arisen, which are different from the prototypes but similar within the same genome. This has resulted in an increase in the volume of genetic information, cell specificity, coordination of functions, etc. There has been a gradual complication of the structures of organisms, reflecting Darwin’s principle of ascending or vertical evolution . This, however, is not the only pathway for ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
genome , DNA , gene transfer , genetic information , human , bacteria , evolution
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