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Leonardo on the Nature of Water

... Leonardo planned to publish materials in several research fields; he composed detailed plans for these publications, reconsidered and rewrote them several times. Leonardo’s Codex Hammer (now in Bill Gates collection) includes the plan of the “Book of Water” consisting of 15 parts: water in itself, the nature of the bottoms, things moving in it, canals, machines set in motion by water, etc. Here we will describe only some of Leonardo’s achievements in his basic research on the nature of water and ...

Modified: 25.10.2007
Leonardo da Vinci , water , clouds
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How to Make Perfect Snow

... testing aircraft de-icing systems and winter tires, and even in forestry: to protect young trees from frostbites by generating small snowdrifts around them. Is it easy to make snow? Most people are sure that snow is very easy to make: one only needs water and cold weather. Yes, it looks very simple, but appearances could be deceptive. So we suggest that those who live in a cold climate carry out a simple and safe experiment. Take a water-spray bottle (the one used for watering houseplant leaves or ...

Modified: 30.03.2006
winter , skiing , artificial snow , water , crystallization , snow gun
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Gas Hydrates in a Freshwater "Ocean"

Lake Baikal is unique in many ways: it is the world deepest and one of the largest lakes, it is known for its pristine water, and it contains a unique endemic flora and fauna. But it is also the only place on Earth where gas hydrates occur in a freshwater environment. The reported results were obtained by the international team of scientists as part of the joint Belgian-Russian ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
methane , gas hydrates , water , Lake Baikal , volcanos , sediments , mud , water quality
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The Diversity of Crustacea in Baikal

... counts more than 300 species in Baikal. However, only macrohectopus that lives at the depth of more than 1000 meters is the pelagic species. Other Baikal amphipoda are representatives of the benthos, they share the territory of the bottom and near-bottom waters. Who was the immediate ancestor of macrohectopus? When did this species occupy the niche? Why does the crustaceans prefer to live in the dark and cold bottom layers of the lake, though every night they have to go up to the surface to get algae ...

Modified: 30.09.2004
Lake Baikal , water , crustaceans , copepods , epishura , macrohectopus
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